Extending ADR mechanism for LoRa enabled mobile end-devices

Extending ADR mechanism for LoRa enabled mobile end-devices

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  • August 8, 2021
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V. Moysiadis, T. Lagkas, V. Argyriou, A. Sarigiannidis, I. Moscholios, P. Sarigiannidis: Extending ADR mechanism for LoRa enabled mobile end-devices. In: Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 102388 , 2021.

Abstract

A considerable percentage of Internet of Things end-devices are characterised by mobility, a feature that adds extra complexity to protocols used in Wireless Sensor Networks. LoRa is one of the newly introduced wireless sensor protocols, capable of delivering messages in long distances and consuming low energy, features that make it proper for low cost devices. Although LoRa was introduced as a technology for stationary devices, it can also be used for mobile devices of low speed. In this paper, we introduce an enhancement to Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) mechanism to enable mobile LoRa, by improving the connection reliability of mobile end-devices, while keeping energy consumption at low levels. Firstly, we propose the Linear Regression - ADR (LR-ADR) mechanism for the Network Server side to smooth the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) estimates per gateway and predict the SNR of the next transmission. Secondly, we propose the Linear Regression + ADR (LR+ADR) mechanism, an adaptive method for the end-device side to regain the connectivity faster with the Network Server. We conducted simulation modelling to evaluate the performance of our implementation while we compared our results with four alternative solutions ADR, ADR+, EMA-ADR, G-ADR. The results prove that our first approach (LR-ADR) performs better than the best competitor, and our second approach (LR+ADR) brings an additional improvement in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), while they retain the Energy Consumption per Packet Delivered (ECPD) at low levels. In particular, in a scenario that mimics real world conditions, LR+ADR presents an increase of up to 520% for PDR compared to the original ADR and an improvement of up to 38% compared to the best competitor (G-ADR). Moreover, it reduces ECPD up to 74% compared to the original ADR, while keeping it at the same level with the best competitor (G-ADR).

BibTeX (Download)

@article{Moysiadis2021b,
title = {Extending ADR mechanism for LoRa enabled mobile end-devices},
author = {V. Moysiadis and T. Lagkas and V. Argyriou and A. Sarigiannidis and I. Moscholios and P. Sarigiannidis},
doi = {10.1016/j.simpat.2021.102388},
year  = {2021},
date = {2021-08-08},
journal = {Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory},
volume = {102388},
abstract = {A considerable percentage of Internet of Things end-devices are characterised by mobility, a feature that adds extra complexity to protocols used in Wireless Sensor Networks. LoRa is one of the newly introduced wireless sensor protocols, capable of delivering messages in long distances and consuming low energy, features that make it proper for low cost devices. Although LoRa was introduced as a technology for stationary devices, it can also be used for mobile devices of low speed. In this paper, we introduce an enhancement to Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) mechanism to enable mobile LoRa, by improving the connection reliability of mobile end-devices, while keeping energy consumption at low levels. Firstly, we propose the Linear Regression - ADR (LR-ADR) mechanism for the Network Server side to smooth the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) estimates per gateway and predict the SNR of the next transmission. Secondly, we propose the Linear Regression + ADR (LR+ADR) mechanism, an adaptive method for the end-device side to regain the connectivity faster with the Network Server. We conducted simulation modelling to evaluate the performance of our implementation while we compared our results with four alternative solutions ADR, ADR+, EMA-ADR, G-ADR. The results prove that our first approach (LR-ADR) performs better than the best competitor, and our second approach (LR+ADR) brings an additional improvement in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), while they retain the Energy Consumption per Packet Delivered (ECPD) at low levels. In particular, in a scenario that mimics real world conditions, LR+ADR presents an increase of up to 520% for PDR compared to the original ADR and an improvement of up to 38% compared to the best competitor (G-ADR). Moreover, it reduces ECPD up to 74% compared to the original ADR, while keeping it at the same level with the best competitor (G-ADR).},
keywords = {adaptive data rate, energy consumption, LoRa, LoRaWAN, mobile devices},
pubstate = {published},
tppubtype = {article}
}
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